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加里·斯奈德获得第十四届“诗歌与人-国际诗歌奖”

2021-11-08 09:37 来源:南方艺术 阅读

第十四届“诗歌与人-国际诗歌奖”获得者加里·斯奈德

第十四届“诗歌与人-国际诗歌奖”获得者加里·斯奈德

授奖词
黄礼孩

作为“自然文学”的代表人物,加里·斯奈德 (Gary Snyder, 1930- ),被誉为“深层生态学的桂冠诗人”。在漫长的岁月里,斯奈德先生整合了自然情感的反射,以东方智慧为指向、以自然审美为格调,致力于探索文明与自然的诗学,在自然与社会之间建立起互惠的同一关系。早年他向往遥远之地,深入印第安民族生态的实践,后来又结合东方禅宗文化的参悟,形成了独特的自然生命观。斯奈德深得自然的禀赋,他向远古的生命与文明学习,展现出了对于自然、生命、物我关系的深层思考,为人的自我实现提供了有益的尝试,在这一过程中,他将东西方永恒的思想赋予现实。他是清醒的大师。他以清洁的灵魂呼吁人们重拾“古老的同心”,重塑古老文化的根源,找回朴素的生活,在诗歌中重建了一个人类可以栖息的世界。加里·斯奈德从东西方文化角度来观察自然、宗教、文化、社会、历史、思想,他的诗歌既根植于广袤的土地,在移情自然之时,又展现出了工业化时代现代人对生存环境的关切和忧虑,表现出他永恒的爱和果断的纠正。他的诗歌简洁生动、神秘清冽、意境深远,在节制的文本里,他直接、具体、明快地呈现出自然所蕴藏的诗意,寻觅到事实之外的事实,让语言成为自然的一部分。20世纪60年代末期已经成为“美国新文化英雄”的加里·斯奈德是一个时代的声音,无论作为“垮掉的一代”的精神高山,还是作为“自然代言人”的诗人,他毕生把历史和荒野之地纳于心中,不断以诗性去接近事物的本质,从有限性的生命里生长出无穷的力量,以对抗时代的失衡、紊乱及愚昧无知。加里·斯奈德拥有多重的身份,却是一个充满传奇色彩又有特殊意义的诗人。他把诗人、行动者、理想者的身份完美结合起来,一个人创造了一个足以对抗异化的强健世界。加里·斯奈德是一个真正将大地的光荣归还大地的诗人。

Award Ceremony Speech

As a representative of “nature writing”, Gary Snyder (1930-) is acclaimed as“the poet laureate of deep ecology”. In his long career, Mr. Snyder has integrated his sensibilities to nature, oriented himself in Eastern wisdom, and fostered a natural aesthetic. Heendeavors to exploring the poetics of civilization and nature, and strives to establish a mutually beneficial relationship between nature and society. In early years he yearned for the remote and practicedthe Native Americans’ ecology. Later he drew upon Zen culture and formed unique ideas about nature and life. “By Nature’s gifts so favored”, Snyder also learns from ancient life and civilizations, ponders over nature, life and the relation between self and things, and attempts at man’s self-realization. During this process, he brings theideas of eternity—both East and West—into reality. He is the awakened master and with a pure soul calls on people to “hark again to those roots, to see our ancient solidarity”, restorea simple life, and reconstruct in poetry a world where human beings could dwell. Snyder observes nature, religion, culture, society, history and thoughts from the perspectives of both Western and Eastern cultures. Deeply rooted in the vast earth and empatheticwith nature, his poetry expresses modern people’s concern about our living environment in an industrial age, exhibitingthe poet’s everlasting love and unhesitating redress. Succinct and vivid, mystical but diaphanous, his poetry strikes a deeper note beyond the lines.In controlled textshereveals the poetical spiritof nature in a direct, concrete and lucid way, discoveringtruth beyond the factsand making language a part of nature. Already a “hero of new American culture” at the end of the 1960s, Snyder is the voice of an era. Whether as the spiritual peak of the Beat Generation or as the spokesman for nature,he has triedall his life “to hold both history and wilderness in mind, that my poems may approach the true measure of things and stand against the unbalance and ignorance of our times.” With various roles, Snyder is a legendary poet of special significance. He perfectly combines the identities of poet, activist and idealist,and creates a world strong enough to counter the alienation. Gary Snyder is a poet who truly returns to the earth its own glory.

加里·施耐德答谢词

Acceptance Speech to Mr. Huang Lihai

Thank you, Mr. Huang Li-Hai.

Yourceremony speech about my work is really charming and more positive than I deserve.  It is gratifying to have such a full and deep comprehension, across the Pacific,from one of the oldest civilizations, of what I have been trying to do in my work and life put out front.  This award will help us speak some further truth, and find more common ground, in this complex world of the two thousand twenties.

I believe we share similar roots, coming out of the same ground of earth.

I was born in San Francisco in May of 1930.  Soon my parentsreturned to Seattle and bought a bit of cut-over land  north of town—atruly run-down and rough little cabin with just one room.  My father,along with many other men at that time,  was not able to get any work.

It was the middle of the Great Depression. They were able to find a cowand started a little milk business. By the time I could ride a bike wehad two cows and I delivered bottles of milk every  morning from mybicycle.  I saved enough money to buy a number of Rhode Island Red hensand with a barn that included a space for chickens I had a regularlittle egg business.

My mother had been a student at the University of Washington but wasnever able to finish college.  Before the depression my father hadworked on ships at sea. They were both thoughtful people with what todaywe would call Socialist politics.

World War II brought many changes.  My father was hired to be an adviserto Veterans returning from war, and my mother was hired to be anewswriter on a newspaper.We had moved to Portland Oregon. My sisterand I both graduated from high school.I was admitted to Reed College,on a free scholarship.  It was notorious for its liberal politics andacademic rigor.  I also worked nights as a menial helper for anewspaper, and began to climb the tall snow mountain peaks of the areaand spend a little time in the forest. I majored in anthropology andstudied the cultures of the native peoples of the Pacific northwest,particularly the Haida, and the history of the Occident.  My survivalwork included forest labor and carpentry. I kept up the study of theChinese literary language and early classics especially the "GreatLearning" or Ta Hsueh.  I became interested in Buddhist thoughtincluding that of early India andTibet.TheChinese Chan teachingswere particularly intriguing.--  texts like the English translation ofthe Liutzu Tanching, the "Sixth Patriarch Sutra" (六祖坛经).There are hundreds oftexts for our study. I also read many fine translations of great Chinesepoets, and tried doing some translation myself while a graduate studentat U.C. Berkeley.While in Berkeley I met Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac and other Beat writers, and was stimulated by their fresh energy.

I love high mountains. I live and learn from deepforests, deserts, coastal formations, rivers and swamps, and to see thenatural place of farms and cities within those landscapes.

This interest in Far Eastern cultures and a year of modern Japaneselanguage studies as well as two courses on literary Chinese led to aninvitation to Japan where I was enabled to spend long periods in severalRinzai monasteries as a virtual monk. I got to know a number of
impoverished and mostly homeless Japanese poets and artists, who led meto fascinating and desperate lives in the heart of Tokyo as well as inthe Japan Alps and a little island near Okinawa, all of us living bydiving and fishing.  i learned a great deal from the remarkable Japanese(war veteran) poet SAKAKI Nanao who taught me how to be in the inner cityand the far mountains both. I married a Japanese woman there who becamethe mother of my two sons. I decided to go back to the west coast after16 years based on the whole Pacific.

The combination of forest and environmental labor with ZenBuddhist study and practice -- and the occasional poems– plusecological politics and education, became my life.  We got someundeveloped mountain land in the middle Sierra Nevada, and using localavailable materials as far as possible, built a house with a woodshed,and useful outbuildings. Very little came from stores, and the town was25 miles away.  Our mountain neighbors helped a lot, and we helped a biton their lands later. We sat zazen, tso-ch'an (坐禅), every morning in the dark.

My poetry, lectures and essays are part of who I am, embedded in my work and place,through my hands, my family, my poetry communities, my studies and practice of the Eastern philosophies, and my translation of Chinese poetry. These are all interconnected and inseparable, just the way leaves can’t be separated from trees,  or rivers from mountains, or life from earth, or poetry from people.

Mychildren are adults now, exploring their own lives. The ecosystem and community I have lived in is vibrant and independent. I have published about 20 books of prose andpoetry, and I have been invited to hundreds of schools and groups totalk about my idea of respecting nature, nourishing and helping humanbeingsof all descriptions, living simply but elegantly.

We are what we do, eat, speak, write and translate. We are part of nature, this simple fact often forgotten, ignored and suppressed, as our world becomes more and moreindustrialized. Poetry keeps us aware of this truth, the kind of poetry that keeps our daily practice of the wild, living simply but elegantly.

It sounds simple, but it takes courage, discipline and persistence.

But poetry can help, because the true nature of poetry is simple and elegant. Poetry is a way of living.It connects us all.

The spirit of your “Poets and People Award” ties the web of poetry, people and earth so simply and elegantly. I’m honored to be part of this beautiful world.

Thank you!

Gary Snyder

1 June 2021

致黄礼孩先生的受奖词

感谢黄礼孩先生:

您给我的颁奖仪词富有魅力,让我受之有愧。文明古国的中国对我的作品有如此的肯定,对我一生的实践有这样深刻的理解,真是令人满足和欣慰。这个奖项会帮助我们说出一些更加深刻的真理,找到更多共同的语言,来帮助我们一起和谐的共存于当今这个复杂的世界。

因为我们同根同源,我们来自同一个大地。

我1930年生于旧金山。父母在西雅图买下城镇北部的一片采伐地——其实就是一座极其破败简陋的小木屋,只有一个房间。当时是大萧条中期,我父亲和几个人都找不到工作。他们得到一头奶牛,开始做牛奶生意。我学会骑自行车的时候,家里有了两头牛,我每天早上骑车去送瓶装牛奶。 后来我攒够了钱,买了50只罗得岛小红母鸡,在谷仓空地开了个鸡场,每天卖鸡蛋养家糊口。

我母亲曾是华盛顿州立大学学生,但没有完成学业。大萧条前,我父亲在轮船上做事。他们都是有思想的人,就是现在所说的社会主义者。

二战后,父亲被聘为顾问,帮助那些战争归来的士兵。母亲为一家报纸做新闻记者。我们搬到俄勒冈州的波特兰市。我姐姐和我高中毕了业。我被里德学院录取,获全额奖学金。里德学院以自由政治和学术严格著称。我主修人类学,研究西北太平洋本土文化,特别是海达文化。还有欧美地区的历史。我白天上学,晚上在一家报纸做体力活,还当过伐木工和木工,维持生计。同时开始攀登该地区有名的冰峰。我学习中国文学语言和经典,如《大学》。我对佛教思想格外感兴趣,包括早期印度和西藏佛教。中国禅宗教义是特别激发思索的文本,比如《六祖坛经》。有数百部经典著作供我们研究。我还阅读了很多中国卓越诗人的翻译作品, 在伯克利大学我也尝试翻译过一些。在那儿我遇到艾伦·金斯堡,杰克·凯鲁亚克和其他垮掉派作家,我们互相激发能量。

从森林深处,沙漠,临海地层还有沼泽地,我学会了生活和学习,学会观察农场和城市里的自然。

这种对远东文化的兴趣,还有我一年的现代日本语和中国文学课,让我受邀赴日本学习,长期居住在在仁济寺,成为挂名僧人。我认识了一些无家可归的日本诗人和艺术家,他们带我进入东京市精彩而绝望的生活,日本的阿尔卑斯山,冲绳的一座小岛, 靠潜水和打鱼为生。我和杰出的日本诗人坂崎南澳相处,学到了很多,他教会我如何在城市和远山之间同存。我在那里娶了一个日本女人,生下两个儿子。经过十六年太平洋彼岸的生活,我决定回到美国西岸。

这就是我的生活:森林,环保工作与禅宗研究实践的结合,加上诗歌、生态政治和教育。在加州塞拉山脉里,我们得到一片废弃的旧金矿山地。利用当地的资源,我们建造了一座带柴棚的房子,还有车房谷仓。极少的原料是买来的,城镇离我们二十五英里。我们山里的朋友帮了大忙,我们后来也帮他们干农场上的活儿。我们每天早上在黑暗中打坐,参禅。

我的诗,讲座和论文是我生命的部分,来自我的工作,我的双手,我的家人,我的社会社团,我的东方哲学研究和实践,我翻译里的中国文化。这些都是相互联系,不可分割的,就像枝叶与树木,河流与山脉,生命与大地,诗歌与人。

现在孩子们都长大了,开拓了自己的生活。我所在的生态系统和社区尽管贫穷,却很有生机,很独立。我出版了20多本散文和诗歌集,我去学校和团体讲述我对自然的看法,培养后代.

我们的行为、饮食、话语、写作和翻译,决定我们是谁,为什么活着,怎么活着。我们是自然,这个简单的事实经常被遗忘,忽略, 压制。当我们的世界越来越工业化,诗歌让我们清醒,让我们尊重荒野,尊重简单而优雅的生活。

简单而优雅地活着,听起来容易,但需要勇气,自律和坚持。

诗可以帮助我们, 因为诗的本质就是简单和优雅。它以最简单最优雅的方式,组合生命。

您的“诗歌与人奖”为诗、人和地球编织网络。我很荣幸能成为这美好世界的一分子。

谢谢!

加里·施耐德

2021年6月1日

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